Sector Name:Power Delivery & Utilization - Transmission
Document Type:Technical Results
This Product is publicly available
Operation of today's increasingly complex power systems requires comprehensive training of system operators and operations engineers. By increasing their awareness and understanding of dynamic phenomena, the EPRI Power System Dynamics Tutorial
can improve an operator's ability to take effective action—either preventive or corrective. This latest version of the tutorial represents an update of key topics to reflect industry restructuring under the vision of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) as well as current Reliability Standards issued by the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC). In addition, a new section briefly describes the basic concepts of the Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) and Wide Area Control System (WACS).
EPRI developed the first version of the power system dynamics tutorial in 1989, with the aim of enhancing training of power system operators and operation engineers. Addressing industry concerns, the tutorial was designed as an easily understandable supplement to utility-specific training materials. Earlier versions of this tutorial were well received, with thousands of copies in use by system operators throughout the world. A number of important industry-wide changes led to revision of the 2002 version of the power system dynamics tutorial. These changes included:
- The appointment of NERC as the Electric Reliability Organization for North America. NERC has moved from a voluntary compliance organization to an organization with government authority to enforce the Reliability Standards. Many changes were made to this tutorial to reflect NERC's expanding role.
- Training requirements for system operators have been substantially increased. The technical material in this tutorial has been expanded to reflect the changing needs of system operators.
- The Eastern Interconnection outage of August 14, 2003, initiated many changes to how the North American power system is operated. This revised tutorial addresses many of these changes.
ObjectiveTo address the current needs of North American power system operators and operations engineers through a comprehensively updated tutorial on power system dynamics
ApproachIn revising the tutorial, the author has incorporated material from the presentations of numerous power system dynamics seminars, coupled with industry knowledge and experiences. Unique design features were employed to enhance the effectiveness of the tutorial, both as a training tool and as a reference source. This revised edition updates terminology to be consistent with current versions of the NERC Reliability Standards. In addition, many new illustrations have been added, and all other illustrations have been updated.
ResultsThis edition of the tutorial includes a tutorial overview and an introductory review of power system fundamentals, followed by chapters on active and reactive power flow, frequency and voltage control, voltage and angle stability, and power system oscillations. The tutorial includes chapters on harmonics, resonance, subsynchronous resonance, ferroresonance, and solar magnetic disturbances. An entire chapter is devoted to the construction and operation of high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems and phase shifting transformers. This edition has been expanded to explain the causes of power system shutdowns, with emphasis on the theory of power system restoration and the methods used in such restoration. Topics of great interest in this area include voltage and frequency control, equipment and protective relay issues, and synchronizing issues that may be encountered during power system restoration. Also discussed are possible strategies to employ during system restoration along with lessons learned from actual restoration events occurring in North American power systems. A new section has been added to briefly introduce the basic concepts of the Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) and Wide Area Control System (WACS). Like its predecessors, this edition uses a direct style, relying on physical analogies, intuitive reasoning, and actual case histories rather than on complex engineering terminology and numerous mathematical equations. This tutorial supersedes EPRI reports EL-6360-L and TR-107726-R1.
EPRI PerspectiveThousands of readers in the power system community have benefited from earlier editions of this tutorial as a training tool and reference source on power system operation and engineering. This tutorial—which has become well known in the industry over the past 20 years—provides a comprehensive overview of the knowledge that operators need in understanding power system dynamics. EPRI's goal with this tutorial is to ensure that system operators acquire the necessary knowledge to exercise critical judgment in emergency situations that fall outside the scope of step-by-step utility procedures. EPRI believes that the use of this tutorial promotes operator proficiency, while supporting economic and reliable power system operation.
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